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INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

First published: 2014.01.09 -- Modified: 2016.09.12





In accordance with Article 8 of the Act CXVI of 1996 on atomic energy the HAEA cooperates with the organizations performing similar regulatory tasks in other countries, and establishes and maintains bilateral cooperation with them. In addition, the HAEA coordinates the international cooperation in relation to the safety and security of the use of atomic energy, gives opinion on international agreements to be concluded in this field and follows their realization within its scope of competence.

In line with Govt. decree 112/2011 (VII.4.) Korm. the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority:

• cooperates with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and other international and regional intergovernmental organizations working in the field of peaceful use of atomic energy,

• performs the tasks for the national implementation of the intergovernmental agreements concluded in the field of safe use of atomic energy,

• takes care of fulfilling the international obligations associated with the safe use of atomic energy within its competence in regard to nuclear safety, the safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste , nuclear emergency response, nuclear security, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and civil liability for nuclear damages,

• prepares the draft national reports based on the international obligations in regard to nuclear safety and the safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste.

Multilateral relations

As a result of the international activities of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority performed in the field of multilateral relations, Hungary is an active participant of every important international treaty in connection with the safe use of atomic energy and fully complies with their provisions. The representatives of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority play active roles in the universal and regional international organizations established on the basis of international treaties on the safety and security of the use of atomic energy, in forums established for the implementation of certain multilateral international treaties and other forum-like forms of international cooperation.

International organizations

(www.iaea.org)

The Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was accepted by the General Assembly of the United Nations Organization in October, 1956. The IAEA was established in 1957 as an autonomous intergovernmental organization within the family of the professional organizations of the UNO; currently, the IAEA has 167 member states. The headquarters of the IAEA is located in Vienna. Hungary ratified the IAEA statute among the first nations, thus it belongs to the founding members of the organization.

The activities of the IAEA cover three large, correlating and balanced areas; the IAEA supports and facilitates the peaceful use of atomic energy and other nuclear technologies, strengthens nuclear safety and verifies the peaceful nature of the nuclear activities in the frame of the so called safeguards system.

(www.oecd-nea.org)

The Convention of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was accepted in December, 1960; currently, the OECD has 35 member states. The Nuclear Energy Agency is a specialised agency of the OECD; it has 31 parties. The headquarters of the OECD and of the OECD NEA is in Paris. Hungary is a party of the OECD and its NEA since 1996.

The mission of the Nuclear Energy Agency is to facilitate its member states in answering the scientific technology and legal questions of nuclear energy in order to operate and develop it further in an economically sustainable and environment friendly manner.

(http://www.euratom.org/) (www.ensreg.eu)

The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) was established in March 25, 1957 with the second Rome Treaty, on the day when the Rome Treaty establishing the European Economic Community was signed. Hungary, with its accession to the European Union in 2004, became a party of the Euratom Treaty. All the 28 member states of the European Union are members of the Euratom Treaty (that is part of the Lisbon Treaty as well), independently of whether they operate nuclear facilities or not.

The member states agreed on the peaceful use of atomic energy and the cooperation in the development of atomic energy industry. Accordingly, this means the harmonization of the research in the field of atomic energy, the joint establishment of the rules of protection and the establishment of the common market in all the fields relating to the generation of atomic energy, including the free movement of capital and professionals.

The European Commission, with its resolution of July 17, 2007, established the European Nuclear Safety Regulators’ Group (ENSREG) as an independent expert body, which at its own initiation or at the request of the European Commission gives advice to the Commission and contributes to reaching a common understanding in the field of the safety of nuclear facilities and the safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste . Additionally, the ENSREG facilitates the discussion and cooperation between the national nuclear authorities. Currently, three working groups operate within the frame of ENSREG: the nuclear safety, the waste and decommissioning and the transparency working groups.

Hungary takes part in the work of the working groups of the European Union in the nuclear field, thus it is represented in the most important decision support working group, namely the Working Parties on Atomic Questions. Additionally, Hungarian experts participate in the Article 31 Expert Group (Basic Safety Standards), Article 37 Expert Group (radioactive discharges) and in the Advisory Committee of the Euratom Supply Agency.

(www.ctbto.org )

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature in September 24, 1996 in New York. Article II established the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO), which consists of three organs, namely the Conference of the Participating States, the Executive Committee and the Technical Secretariat.

The CTBT enters into force 18 days after its ratification by those 44 States, which are listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. Since only 36 out of 44 States ratified the CTBT until January, 2016, the treaty has not yet entered into force. Independently thereof, the CTBT Technical Secretariat operates; its headquarters is located in Vienna.

The CTBT aims at eliminating nuclear weapons by banning the development of new type nuclear weapons and the improvement of their quality. The organisation plays a key role in nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament.

Multilateral cooperation

(www.nsg-online.org)

The Non-proliferation Treaty is based on three fundamental pillars: the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, the disarmament of existing nuclear weapons and the peaceful use of nuclear energy.

After the Non-proliferation Treaty entered into force the states having nuclear technologies (suppliers) started a discussion to harmonize the interpretation of the export control obligation established in Article III.2 of the Treaty. In 1974, the biggest nuclear supplier states (i.e. Canada, France, United Kingdom, the United States of America, the former Soviet Union, the German Federal Republic and Japan) further discussed their non-proliferation efforts in London and established guidelines on export control, which documents are currently known as the guidelines of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). The NSG participating governments shall implement the guidelines for any peaceful transfer in order to guarantee that the transferred product or technology cannot be used in a nuclear fuel cycle being out of safeguards verification or for the development of a nuclear explosive device. Currently, 48 governments participate in the work of the Nuclear Suppliers Group; Hungary has been a party since 1985.

The NSG does not collect membership fee, does not have a secretariat, or a common budget. The Japanese permanent mission working next to the international organizations performs the tasks of the contact point and the meetings of the working groups are organized there. The annually elected chair is the host of the NSG plenary.

(http://www.foi.se/en/Customer--Partners/Projects/zc/zangger/)

The Zangger Committee was established in 1971. Since the Nuclear Suppliers Group, which includes the parties of the Committee, was established, the Zangger Committee supports the work of the NSG as a professional background organization, primarily with regard to the compilation of the list of nuclear materials and equipment requiring safeguards. Currently, the Committee has 39 members; its meetings are held in Vienna.

The most important goal of the Committee is to facilitate the free information exchange on export activities, in which countries having fissile materials and associated technologies transfer such materials and technologies to non nuclear weapon states and to states that are not party of the Treaty. If such an export is realized, the Committee requests the supplier state to apply safeguards through the IAEA that the supplied materials and/or products are not used for nuclear tests and nuclear weapons. The Committee regularly reviews the compiled list of materials and equipment, the export of which requires the application of IAEA safeguards.

Nuclear forums

(www.wenra.org)

The Western European Nuclear Regulators’ Association (WENRA) was established in 1999; currently it has 18 member states (which are member states of the European Union) and 10 observers. Hungary has been taking part of the work of the WENRA since 2003.

The goal of the Association is to harmonize the safety requirements for European nuclear power plants at least on the jointly established base line; accordingly, it published the reference levels for operating nuclear power plants in 2008. The member states undertake to adapt these provisions into their national nuclear safety regulations.

(https://esarda.jrc.ec.europa.eu)

The European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) was established in 1969; it is the association of the European organizations working in the field of nuclear safeguards. The members of ESARDA are national regulators (performing inspections), operators of nuclear facilities (being inspected), as well as research centres and universities (performing R&D activities regarding nuclear safeguards).

The main goal of ESARDA is to harmonize and support the research and development activities in the field of nuclear safeguards. The Association provides a forum for intensive information exchange among researchers, developers, operators and regulators working in the field of nuclear safeguards.

(www.ensra.org)

The European Nuclear Security Regulators’ Association (ENSRA) was established in 2004; the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority joined the Association in 2009. The ENSRA has 15 member states (these are members of the European Union) and 3 observers.

The goal of ENSRA is to share lessons learned and certain sensitive information among security regulators and to harmonize the national requirements and their practical implementation in regard to the physical protection of nuclear facilities.

(www.herca.org)

The Heads of European Radiological Protection Competent Authorities (HERCA) was established in 2007; currently, the association consists of 51 radiation protection authorities from 31 states on voluntary basis.

The goal of HERCA is to identify issues of common interest based on the Euratom Treaty and to develop practical solutions with the aim at harmonising national regulations.

(https://gnssn.iaea.org/regnet/Pages/WWER-Forum.aspx)

The WWER Regulatory Forum was established in 1993 with the aim to share lessons learned by those states that operate WWER type nuclear power plant units. The members of the Forum are Armenia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, China, Finland, Hungary, India, Iran, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine. Germany and the IAEA participate in the work of the forum as observers.
(http://www.euraca.eu/)

The European Association of Competent Authorities for Safe and Sustainable Transport of Radioactive Material was established in 2008 by France and the United Kingdom. Currently, the regulators of 26 European states take part in the work of the Association; Hungary became a party in 2016.

The goal of the Association in to facilitate the adaptation of international provisions into national regulations, to provide an effective way of exchanging views regarding the transport of radioactive materials, in order to support the enhancement of transport safety.

Bilateral relations

The bilateral relations of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority are primarily based on certain bilateral international agreements of Hungary, where the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority is partly or fully designated for the implementation. Such international agreements were concluded in the following areas:

• peaceful use of atomic energy,

• regulations for issues of mutual interest in regard to nuclear safety and radiation protection,

• early notification in the case of nuclear accidents,

• training, research, regulatory and technical cooperation in the field of peaceful use of atomic energy. On the other hand the bilateral international relations of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority are based on professional agreements concluded by itself in its scope of task and competence. It should be noted that the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority meets with the representatives of the partner authorities of other states on an ad-hoc basis as appropriate on the side of international and forum-like meetings and conferences, with which international agreements or professional memoranda of understanding have not been concluded.

Bilateral relations based on international treaties

Based on bilateral agreements the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority cooperates with the following states:

          the United States of America
          Australia
          Austria
          Czech Republic
          Croatia
          Canada
          Republic of Korea
          Germany
          Russian Federation
          Romania
          Republic of Serbia
          Slovakia
          Slovenia
          Ukraine
          Viet Nam

Bilateral relations based on professional memoranda of understanding

Currently, the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority has valid bilateral agreement with the partner authorities of the following countries:

          the United States of America
          Czech Republic
          Finland
          Russian Federation
          Romania
          Slovakia
          Turkey